As a nurse practitioner, you prescribe medications for your

As a nurse practitioner, you prescribe medications for your patients. You make an error when prescribing medication to a 5-year-old patient. Rather than dosing him appropriately, you prescribe a dose suitable for an adult. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Ingram Publishing Week 1: Basic Pharmacotherapeutic Concepts/Ethical and Legal Aspects of Prescribing How do beta-blockers work? What exactly do antibiotics do to the bacteria they target? What effects does an anti-depressant have on blood flow? Questions like these are related to the underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of pharmacotherapeutics. As an advanced practice nurse, understanding these fundamental pharmacotherapeutic concepts is important to ensure that the prescription drugs you recommend for your patients will be safe and effective to treat and/or manage their symptoms. Additionally, as the advanced practice nurse, it is your responsibility to ensure that when prescribing prescription drugs, you adhere to the ethical and legal principles set forth for prescribing drugs as an added layer of protection and safety for the patients you will treat. This week, you will analyze factors that may influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics processes of a patient and assess the details of a personalized plan of care that you develop based on influencing factors and patient history. You will also evaluate and analyze ethical and legal implications and practices related to prescribing drugs, including disclosure and nondisclosure, and analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication errors. Learning Objectives Students will: Analyze factors that influence pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic      processes in patients Assess patient factors and history to develop personalized plans of      care Evaluate ethical and legal implications related to prescribing      drugs Analyze ethical and legal practices of prescribing drugs Analyze strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure Justify advanced practice nurse strategies to guide prescription      drug decision-making Analyze the process of writing prescriptions to avoid medication      errors    Learning Resources Required Readings (click to expand/reduce) Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier. · Chapter 1, “Prescriptive Authority” (pp. 1–3) · Chapter 2, “Rational Drug Selection and Prescription Writing” (pp. 4–7) · Chapter 3, “Promoting Positive Outcomes of Drug Therapy” (pp. 8–12) · Chapter 4, “Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Drug Interactions” (pp. 13–33) · Chapter 5, “Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors” (pp. 34–42) · Chapter 6, “Individual Variation in Drug Response” (pp. 43–45) American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674–694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767 American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults by American Geriatrics Society, in Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol. 67/Issue 4. Copyright 2019 by Blackwell Publishing. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishing via the Copyright Clearance Center. This article is an update to the Beers Criteria, which includes lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults as well as newly added criteria that lists select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual’s kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm This website outlines the code of federal regulations for prescription drugs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html This website outlines the schedules for controlled substances, including prescriptive authority for each schedule. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioner’s manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf This manual is a resource for practitioners who prescribe, dispense, and administer controlled substances. It provides information on general requirements, security issues, recordkeeping, prescription requirements, and addiction treatment programs. Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-c). Registration. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/index.html This website details key aspects of drug registration. Fowler, M. D. M., & American Nurses Association. (2015). Guide to the Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements: Development, Interpretation, and Application (2nd ed.). Silver Spring, Maryland: American Nurses Association. This resource introduces the code of ethics for nurses and highlights critical aspects for ethical guideline development, interpretation, and application in practice. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. (2017). List of error-prone abbreviations, symbols, and dose designations. Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/recommendations/error-prone-abbreviations-list This website provides a list of prescription-writing abbreviations that might lead to misinterpretation, as well as suggestions for preventing resulting errors. Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166–173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17 This article provides NPs with information regarding state-based laws for NP prescribing. Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist?led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248–254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446 The authors of this article assess the impact of a pharmacist?led educational intervention on family nurse practitioner (FNP) students’ prescribing skills, perception of preparedness to prescribe, and perception of pharmacist as collaborator. Required Media (click to expand/reduce)    Discussion: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. Photo Credit: Getty Images/Ingram Publishing When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug. To Prepare Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of      pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical      practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and      pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s      pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including      pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible      pathophysiological changes due to disease. Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing      factors and patient history in your case study. Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples. At Least 3 citations with 7th edition APA Format    Assignment: Ethical and Legal Implications of Prescribing Drugs What type of drug should you prescribe based on your patient’s diagnosis? How much of the drug should the patient receive? How often should the drug be administered? When should the drug not be prescribed? Are there individual patient factors that could create complications when taking the drug? Should you be prescribing drugs to this patient? How might different state regulations affect the prescribing of this drug to this patient? These are some of the questions you might consider when selecting a treatment plan for a patient.   Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage As an advanced practice nurse prescribing drugs, you are held accountable for people’s lives every day. Patients and their families will often place trust in you because of your position. With this trust comes power and responsibility, as well as an ethical and legal obligation to “do no harm.” It is important that you are aware of current professional, legal, and ethical standards for advanced practice nurses with prescriptive authority. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the treatment plans and administration/prescribing of drugs is in accordance with the regulations of the state in which you practice. Understanding how these regulations may affect the prescribing of certain drugs in different states may have a significant impact on your patient’s treatment plan. In this Assignment, you explore ethical and legal implications of scenarios and consider how to appropriately respond. To Prepare Review the Resources for this      module and consider the legal and ethical implications of prescribing      prescription drugs, disclosure, and nondisclosure. Review the scenario assigned by      your Instructor for this Assignment. Search specific laws and standards      for prescribing prescription drugs and for addressing medication errors      for your state or region, and reflect on these as you review the scenario      assigned by your Instructor. Consider the ethical and legal implications      of the scenario for all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber,      pharmacist, patient, and patient’s family. Think about two strategies that      you, as an advanced practice nurse, would use to guide your ethically and      legally responsible decision-making in this scenario, including whether      you would disclose any medication errors Write a 3-page paper that addresses the following: Explain the ethical and legal implications of the scenario you      selected on all stakeholders involved, such as the prescriber, pharmacist,      patient, and patient’s family. Describe strategies to address disclosure and nondisclosure as      identified in the scenario you selected. Be sure to reference laws      specific to your state. Explain two strategies that you, as an advanced practice nurse,      would use to guide your decision making in this scenario, including      whether you would disclose your error. Be sure to justify your      explanation.  Explain      the process of writing prescriptions, including strategies to minimize      medication  At Least 3 citations using 7th edition APA format

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