As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body. When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patients pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patients pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug. To Prepare Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug. Consider factors that might have influenced the patients pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease. Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study. Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain the details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples. American Geriatrics Society 2019 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. (2019). American Geriatrics Society 2019 updated AGS Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(4), 674694. doi:10.1111/jgs.15767 Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-a). Code of federal regulations. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/21cfr/cfr/1300/1300_01.htm Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.-b). Mid-level practitioners authorization by state. Retrieved May 13, 2019 from http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/drugreg/practioners/index.html Drug Enforcement Administration. (2006). Practitioners manual. Retrieved from http://www.legalsideofpain.com/uploads/pract_manual090506.pdf Sabatino, J. A., Pruchnicki, M. C., Sevin, A. M., Barker, E., Green, C. G., & Porter, K. (2017). Improving prescribing practices: A pharmacist?led educational intervention for nurse practitioner students. Journal of the American Association ofNursePractitioners, 29(5), 248254. doi:10.1002/2327-6924.12446 Ladd, E., & Hoyt, A. (2016). Shedding light on nurse practitioner prescribing. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 12(3), 166173. doi:10.1016/j.nurpra.2015.09.17 Speed Pharmacology. (2015). Pharmacology Pharmocokinetics (Made Easy) [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKV5iaUVBUI&t=16s Note: This media program is approximately 14 minutes.
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