I NEED A RESPONSE TO ASSIGNMENT 2 REFERENCES Personality disorders refer to a group of mental illnesses that involve enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are not healthy which significantly and adversely affect how an individual functions in work, relationships, and various aspects of life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), personality disorders fall into 10 distinct types: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive. The DSM-5 further divides PDs into three categories of clusters. Cluster A: schizoid, schizotypal, paranoid the client may have odd or eccentric behaviors. Cluster B borderline, histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic with dramatic behaviors. Cluster C avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive which includes anxious and fearful behaviors (American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 2013). This paper will discuss Narcissistic personality disorder a cluster B disorder. A narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by a persistent pattern of grandiosity, fantasies of unlimited power or importance, and the need for admiration or special treatment. The client with NPD may experience significant psychological distress related to interpersonal conflict and functional impairment. Research has shown that core features of the NPD are associated with a poor prognosis in therapy, slow progress to behavioral change, premature patient-initiated termination, and negative therapeutic alliance (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2015). A narcissistic personality disorder is prevalent, highly comorbid with other disorders, and associated with significant functional impairment and psychosocial disability. NPD is a challenging clinical syndrome, variable presentation, difficult to treat, and often exists with co-occurring disorders which further complicates treatment. Therapeutic Approach Due to the complexity of identifying and treating NPD and the absence of expertise or resources for longer-term treatment of personality disorders, some specific approaches and techniques can be implemented to improve general clinical management of patients with the disorder. There are no FDA-approved treatments for NPD, or any other personality disorder and clinicians use psychotherapy but the personality disorder is a challenging condition to treat (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2015). Treatments for narcissistic personality disorder current treatment recommendations are based on clinical experience and theoretical formulations. Psychodynamic formulations have led to an increase in various treatment approaches, and case reports suggest that these treatments can be effective for some clients. The recommended psychotherapies included: mentalization-based therapy, transference focused psychotherapy, and schema-focused psychotherapy. Each of these treatments targets psychological capacities thought to underlie and organize descriptive features of narcissistic personality disorder(Caligor et al., 2015). However, medication may be used when clients with NPD have severe symptoms that compromise their safety. Medications include mood stabilizers or antidepressants for significant affective instability; mood stabilizer or antipsychotic for impulsive anger and aggression; or an antipsychotic for cognitive-perceptual disturbances such as paranoid thoughts, hallucination-like symptoms, depersonalization (Caligor et al., 2015). Also, medication may be prescribed to treat co-occurring conditions, such as mood and anxiety disorders. Clients with NPD tend to report being extra sensitive to side effects, which can cause them to stop taking their medication. A strong therapeutic alliance has been linked to treatment success in clients with PDs. As the PMHNP providing care to a client with NPD, the diagnosis must be shared with the client. This is an important part of informed consent. In providing care for an NPD client it is imperative to discuss the etiology, clinical manifestations, course of illness, and treatment options. Withholding diagnostic information may cause problems by focusing on comorbid conditions like depression or anxiety which the client may respond poorly to treatment. Hence, if the narcissistic problems are not also addressed then the psychotherapies and medications to address depression and anxiety may be ineffective, lead to clinical worsening, and contribute to high drop out rates for NPD clients (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2011). In conclusion client with NPD are difficult to treat based on symptoms are closely linked to other psychosocial disorders and comorbid disorders. Also, treatment for NPD can be difficult for the client and therapist due to the frustration of the therapeutic progress. NPD is an often misunderstood mental condition where a person acts arrogantly, lacks empathy, needs constant attention and admiration, and has an inflated sense of self. There is still considerable research that needs to be done regarding the treatment of personality disorders. However, research suggests there is hope for the future in making significant changes in the psychosocial treatment for clients with personality disorders (Dixon-Gordon et al., 2011). The PMHNP must be knowledgeable of available evidence-based practice, and well-trained to treat clients suffering from personality disorders. Evidence has shown that PDs are treatable disorders. The therapeutic alliance is an essential ingredient in all successful doctor-patient interactions, it is especially important when treating a narcissist. Patients with narcissistic traits commonly terminate treatment with medical providers after incidents that providers perceive as harmless misunderstandings. Increased awareness of the clinicians feelings when treating these patients will allow the clinician to better recognize the presence of narcissistic traits. This awareness, coupled with an improved understanding of what drives narcissistic behavior, will allow practitioners to manage these patients more effectively in a variety of medical settings. References American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). (2013). American Psychiatric Association. Caligor, E., Levy, K. N., & Yeomans, F. E. (2015). Narcissistic personality disorder: Diagnostic and clinical challenges. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 415422. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14060723 Dixon-Gordon, K. L., Turner, B. J., & Chapman, A. L. (2011). Psychotherapy for personality disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 23(3), 282302. https://doi.org/10.3109/09540261.2011.586992 Dixon-Gordon, K. L., Whalen, D. J., Layden, B. K., & Chapman, A. L. (2015). A systematic review of personality disorders and health outcomes. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 56(2), 168190. https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000024
Why Choose Us
High Quality, 100% Original and Well-Researched Papers
HireProWriter always ensure that our writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can pick your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who much your field or discipline.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
Our Company has a team of professional writers with experience in business articles and academic papers. The majority are native speakers and capable to tackle any task for which you need assistance.
Free Unlimited Revisions
Do you think we missed something on your paper? No worries, send your order for a free revision. We give you up to 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging in to your account or get help from our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need an extension to master your paper, we will contact you on time regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
100% Plagiarism free work! We use premium writing tools to check plagiarism. Our professional editors carefully review all quotations in the text. Besides, we guarantee maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
Customer Support 24/7
Our support team is available 24/7. We are dedicated to giving the best customer experience. Feel free to get in touch any time for assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
Why work on your paper all night? While you can sleep tight, as we cover you back. HireProWriter offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic assistance you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at a reasonable cost. HireProWriter take care of all your academic paper needs with a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission and Business Papers
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You don't have to worry about writing a presentable College admission essay, You can be rest assurred that through our services we will write the best admission essay for you.
Editing and Proofreading
Our Team (academic writers and editors) make the necessary adjustments to your essay/paper so that it is polished. Besides, we format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
We value our clients feedback, our system is designed to ensure that we deliver quality work through collaboration of our team and clients. In case you need an improvement in your paper, you are free to request for revision. For such case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. Your Satisfaction is our Concern!