PLAESE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTION BELOW I NEED A RESPONSE TO THIS ASSIGNMENT 3 REFERENCES Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. Suppose your child or teenage has a frequent and persistent pattern of arguing, anger, irritability, vindictiveness or defiant behaviors toward you and other authority figures. In this case, he or she may have an oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) American Psychiatric Association, 2013). As a parent, you don’t have to this it alone in attempting to deal with a youngster ODD. Doctors, mental health professional and child development experts can help. Definition of Oppositional defiant disorder Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a situation in which a child exhibits a persistence pattern of uncooperative, defiant, hostile, and annoying behavior towards authority figures and others (Cleveland Clinic,2020).     Pathophysiology of ODD The functional changes that accompany this psychiatric disorder ODD is that the young child’s difficult temperament can lead to problems in parent-child bonding, lead to rejection from his/her peers, teachers, and other people (Prerost, 2019). Causes of Oppositional Defiant Disorder The exact cause of ODD is not known. However, a combination of biological, genetic, and environmental factors might play a major role:  Biological: injuries to certain areas of the brain can lead to behavior disorders Genetic: this can be inherited because children and teens with ODD often have close family relatives with mental disorders. Environmental: studies show that chaotic family life, a family history of mental disorders                                                Signs and Symptoms  A patient who is diagnosed with ODD will often lose his/her temper, argue with adults, actively defying, or refusing an adult’s requests, deliberately annoying people, blaming others for mistakes, being easily annoyed by others, often angry, resentful, and being spiteful( American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Diagnosis Opposition Defiant Disorder has established behavior tendencies that are extreme and last at least six months. The disorder can be differentiated from other disruptive behaviors by how severe and how long it lasts. A comprehensive psychological evaluation is recommended for an ODD diagnosis. The evaluation assessment may include establishing whether the child has angry or irritable moods, argumentative or defiant behaviors, been spiteful or vindictive for at least twice within six months (APA, 2013). Furthermore, associated diagnostic features may include frequency and intensity of behavior tendencies, questionable emotions and behaviors across multiple settings and relationships, disruptions in family relationships, and present challenges in learning and communication disorders. Treatment Treatment set up for ODD typically consist of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) which decrease inappropriate behavior’s by teaching the youngster positive methods of reacting to stressful circumstances, Family Therapy (FT) show guardians how to deal with the kid’s conduct, Intervention Counseling (IC) and medications may help how to help control some troubling side effects of ODD (Pardini, Frick & Moffitt, 2010). Therapy can help reestablish your youngster’s confidence and modify a positive connection between you and the child. Your kid’s relationship with other significant grown-ups in their life, for example, instructors and care suppliers additionally will profit by early treatment. Treatment approaches for Opposition Defiant Disorder need to be consistent and conducive to the child. Among others, treatment approached includes family-based interventions such as developing consistent parenting skills, including strategies that reinforce a child’s positive behavior (parent-child interaction therapy). Individual or family therapy may also help the child manage anger and express feelings more healthily, coupled with improved communication within the family setting. Pharmacologically, ODD may be treated using FDA approved antipsychotic medications including Abilify and Risperdal.  Prevention There’s no guaranteed approach to forestall oppositional defiant disorder. In any case, favorable nurturing and early treatment can help improve conduct and keep the circumstance from deteriorating. The earlier that ODD can be dealt with, the better (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). References American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. References Cleveland Clinic. (2020). Oppositional defiant disorder. Pardini, D. A., Frick, P. J., & Moffitt, T. E. (2010). Building an evidence base for DSM–5 conceptualizations of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: Introduction to the special section. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 683-688.

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