Reading Assignment  Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A.

Reading Assignment  Ball, J. W., Dains, J. E., Flynn, J. A., Solomon, B. S., & Stewart, R. W. (2019). Seidel’s guide to physical examination: An interprofessional approach (9th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby. Chapter 1, “The History and Interviewing Process”This chapter explains the process of developing relationships with patients in order to build an effective health history. The authors offer suggestions for adapting the creation of a health history according to age, gender, and disability. Chapter 5, “Recording Information”This chapter provides rationale and methods for maintaining clear and accurate records. The authors also explore the legal aspects of patient records. Sullivan, D. D. (2019). Guide to clinical documentation (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis. Chapter 2, “The Comprehensive History and Physical Exam” (pp. 19–29) Deckx, L., van den Akker, M., Daniels, L., De Jonge, E. T., Bulens, P., Tjan-Heijnen, V. C. G., … Buntinx, F. (2015). Geriatric screening tools are of limited value to predict decline in functional status and quality of life: Results of a cohort study. BMC Family Practice, 16, 1–12. x  Wu, R. R., & Orlando, L. A. (2015). Implementation of health risk assessments with family health history: Barriers and benefits. Postgraduate Medical Journal, (1079), 508–513.  Lushniak, B. D. (2015). Surgeon general’s perspectives: Family health history: Using the past to improve future health. Public Health Reports, (1), 3.  Jardim, T. V., Sousa, A. L. L., Povoa, T. I. R., Barroso, W. K. S., Chinem, B., Jardim, L., … Jardim, P. C. B. V. (2015). The natural history of cardiovascular risk factors in health professionals: 20-year follow-up. BMC Public Health, 15(1111), 1–7.  Shadow Health Support and Orientation Resources Use the following resources to guide you through your Shadow Health orientation as well as other support resources: Frey, C. [Chris Frey]. (2015, September 4). Student orientation [Video file]. Retrieved from Shadow Health. (n.d.). Shadow Health help desk. Retrieved from  Document: Shadow Health. (2014). Useful tips and tricks (Version 2) (PDF) Document: Shadow Health Nursing Documentation Tutorial (Word document) Optional Resource LeBlond, R. F., Brown, D. D., & DeGowin, R. L. (2014). DeGowin’s diagnostic examination (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw- Hill Medical. Chapter 2, “History Taking and the Medical Record” (pp. 15–33) Required Media (click to expand/reduce) Discussion: Building a Health History Effective communication is vital to constructing an accurate and detailed patient history. A patient’s health or illness is influenced by many factors, including age, gender, ethnicity, and environmental setting. As an advanced practice nurse, you must be aware of these factors and tailor your communication techniques accordingly. Doing so will not only help you establish rapport with your patients, but it will also enable you to more effectively gather the information needed to assess your patients’ health risks. For this Discussion, you will take on the role of a clinician who is building a health history for a particular new patient assigned by your Instructor. To prepare: With the information presented in Chapter 1 of Ball et al. in mind, consider the following: By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned a new patient profile by your Instructor for this Discussion. Note: Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your new patient profile assignment. How would your communication and interview techniques for building a health history differ with each patient? How might you target your questions for building a health history based on the patient’s social determinants of health? What risk assessment instruments would be appropriate to use with each patient, or what questions would you ask each patient to assess his or her health risks? Identify any potential health-related risks based upon the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environmental setting that should be taken into consideration. Select one of the risk assessment instruments presented in Chapter 1 or Chapter 5 of the Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination text, or another tool with which you are familiar, related to your selected patient. Develop at least five targeted questions you would ask your selected patient to assess his or her health risks and begin building a health history. Case Study 16-year-old white pregnant female living in an inner-city neighborhood How would your communication and interview techniques for building a health history differ with each patient?      The interview process has to be adjusted pending on the age group, gender, financial status, culture, and language barrier of the individual being assessed. One must provide a private area and be close to the patient during the interview to provide comfort. Use of laymen’s terms helps the individual to understand healthcare information clearly. Making eye contact is especially important unless there is a cultural factor involved. Taking notes should be minimal and if using a computer; it should be positioned so the patient can see the screen as well. Introduce one’s self to the patient and others present and use their names to build a friendly trustworthy environment. reluctant to talk and have a clear need for confidentiality (Stewart, 2019).      When speaking with my adolescent patient I would emphasize that our discussion is confidential with limitations if there is a danger to her or others. We will speak privately unless she wants someone else present. She will be given the opportunity to discuss whatever topics she feels comfortable discussing. How might you target your questions for building a health history based on the patient’s social determinants of health?      There are several areas to concentrate on to build a history based on social determinants of health. One should enquire about the individual’s personal status, sexual history, living conditions, occupation, environment, military record, and social needs.      According to the information provided my patient lives in an inner city neighborhood. This may be an indication of poverty and limited resources. One would inquire if housing, clothing, food, and access to medical care are adequate. If they are not, community resource information would be provided and a social worker referral to aide her. Also, one must ascertain if she is in an abusive relationship or being abused at home. What risk assessment instruments would be appropriate to use with each patient, or what questions would you ask each patient to assess his or her health risks?      Assessing an individual’s health risks is very important in determining what potential health problems one may face. “One of the main goals of documenting the social history (SH) of the patient is to identify factors outside of past or current medical conditions that may influence the patient’s overall health or behaviors that create risk factors for specific conditions” (Sullivan, 2018). Asking what their eating habits are, do they exercise, how much alcohol do they consume, do they smoke cigarettes, do they use recreational drugs, what are their sleeping habits, do they take their medications as prescribed, do they practice unsafe sex, and what is their family history of medical problems. Also, inquiring about their family history of mental illness is important. Religion and culture can affect how the individual’s treatment plan will be developed.     One would obtain the young lady’s family health history at this time to determine if she is at risk for familial issues during her pregnancy. This would be a great opportunity to provide prenatal education and stress the importance of continuity of care during pregnancy. Identify any potential health-related risks based upon the patient’s age, gender, ethnicity, or environmental setting that should be taken into consideration.      Adolescent girls are more likely to die during childbirth than women in their twenties or older.  If a pregnancy is unplanned, the mother may not be getting the prenatal care she and her baby need or may not even be healthy enough to carry a child to term. Teens are often unprepared for the realities involved in parenting an infant. Often, complex relationships and financial burden combined with balancing school and parenting are stressful and can put a newborn at risk. Teens who are pregnant or raising a baby have a hard time finishing school. Only 3 percent of teens who have a baby receive their college diploma before the age of 30. Many teen parents are single. Being a single parent can have financial and emotional stressors and a stressed parent puts a baby at risk. Parents often need resources to help them navigate their child’s well-being and development. Teens may not be aware of this type of assistance. (Heuristic, 2016) References Heuristic. (2016). Risks of Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved from: ( Stewart, B.S.J.B.J.F.J.D. R. (2019) Seidel’s Guide to Physical Examination. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from Sullivan, D. D. (2018). Guide to Clinical Documentation. [VitalSource Bookshelf]. Retrieved from Photo Credit: Getty Images/Caiaimage

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