REPLY1 Widely used nursing theories include Lewin’s 3 stage

REPLY1 Widely used nursing theories include Lewin’s 3 stage model and Lippits phase theory. The Lewin’s change theory consist of three stages including unfreezing, moving and refreezing stages. Unfreezing stage is when you recognize a change is needed, then you move to the phase when the change occurs and refreezing stage happens after equilibrium is established leading to satisfactory results and the cycles goes on and on. A distinct feature of Lewin theory is that it contains both driving forces and resisting forces and for the theory to be successful then the driving must overcome resistant forces. Lippits, Watson and Westley seven phase theory, first phase entails diagnosing the problem, assessing motivation, and capacity for change, evaluating change agent’s motivation and resource, choosing the appropriate role of the change agent, maintaining difference and last phase is termination of the help relationship (Tappen, 2016). Lippits theory expands on Lewin’s model of change into the seven steps mentioned above as well it is more comparable to nursing process hence there is no significance difference between the two (Alageel, Gulliford, McDermott & Wright, 2018). However, Lewin’s is built on three fundamental steps thereby facing a lot of criticism since nursing is more complicated than the three levels. Similarly, both theories are widely used in nursing and both requires nurses who are willing and want to make change. The mentor has applied Lewin’s change theory because she has successfully introduced a new paper work despite the hospital having several rounds every hour. In the unfreezing period she has describe to nurses of the importance of the sheet and how to sign, in the moving stage she let the nurses give their opinions on the system and lastly in the refreezing stage she went round and made sure nurses make this a daily habit. In my own opinion, I believe that Lewin’s theory is more appropriate for my project since most nurses’ push for change receiving less resist from people. Reference Tappen, R. M. (2016). Advanced nursing research: From theory to practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Alageel, S., Gulliford, M. C., McDermott, L., & Wright, A. J. (2018). Implementing multiple health behaviour change interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in primary care: a qualitative study. BMC family practice, 19(1), 171. REPLY2 There are several change theories that would be good to use for the implementation of my capstone change project. After discussing these theories with my preceptor and listening to her stories of success as well as failures, we decided Lewin’s change theory will work best in implementing my change project at the acute care hospital, because there will need to be a strong push for this to be accepted into practice. She had successfully used this theory in the hospital when implementing changes in the past, but she supports the idea that depending on the theory or approach, the outcome can be very different. Combining theories can also be very successful for reaching intended outcomes. Lewin’s change theory involves three steps: freezing, moving and refreezing. Freezing involves using evidence to show why the change is necessary, moving is the active process of the change as it begins to occur in the organization and usually where most friction is met, and refreezing happens after the change is put in place and establishes momentum (Manyibe, et al,.2015). Success is dependent on the driving force dominating the resistant force. Lippet’s theory builds on Lewin’s theory, but includes seven phases instead of just three. In this theory, leadership or management acts as the agent for change. The phases include identifying the problem, assessing willingness and driving force for change, evaluating management’s motivation and resources to apply changes, maintaining the change, leadership stepping into the change agent role with designated responsibilities and lastly when the change agent is accepted as part of the organizational culture (Udod, & Wagner, n.d.).  Manyibe, E. O., Aref, F., Hunter, T., Moore, C. L., & Washington, A. L. (2015). An emerging conceptual framework for conducting disability, health, independent living, and rehabilitation research mentorship and training at minority serving institutions. The journal of rehabilitation, 4, 25. Retrieved from https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=023f49db-8dd6-4cc0-9e7d-ef58670ad40d%40sessionmgr4008  Udod, S., & Wagner, J. (n.d.) Common change theories and application to different nursing situations. Retrieved from https://leadershipandinfluencingchangeinnursing.pressbooks.com/chapter/chapter-9-common-change-theories-and-application-to-different-nursing-situations/

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